# Delay Coordinates Embedding

A timeseries recorded in some manner from a dynamical system can be used to gain information about the dynamics of the entire phase-space of the system. This can be done by reconstructing a new phase-space from the timeseries. One method that can do this is what is known as delay coordinates embedding or delay coordinates reconstruction.

## Reconstruct/Embed

Delay embedding reconstructions are done through reconstruct or embed:

DelayEmbeddings.reconstructFunction
reconstruct(s, γ, τ [, w])

Reconstruct s using the delay coordinates embedding with γ temporal neighbors and delay τ and return the result as a Dataset. Optionally use weight w.

Use embed for the version that accepts the embedding dimension D = γ+1 instead. Here τ ≥ 0, use genembed for a generalized version.

Description

Single Timeseries

If τ is an integer, then the $n$-th entry of the embedded space is

$(s(n), s(n+\tau), s(n+2\tau), \dots, s(n+γ\tau))$

If instead τ is a vector of integers, so that length(τ) == γ, then the $n$-th entry is

$(s(n), s(n+\tau), s(n+\tau), \dots, s(n+\tau[γ]))$

The reconstructed dataset can have same invariant quantities (like e.g. lyapunov exponents) with the original system that the timeseries were recorded from, for proper γ and τ. This is known as the Takens embedding theorem [1, 2]. The case of different delay times allows reconstructing systems with many time scales, see .

Notice - The dimension of the returned dataset (i.e. embedding dimension) is γ+1!

If w (a "weight") is provided as an extra argument, then the entries of the embedded vector are further weighted with $w^\gamma$, like so

$(s(n), w*s(n+\tau), w^2*s(n+2\tau), \dots,w^\gamma * s(n+γ\tau))$

Multiple Timeseries

To make a reconstruction out of a multiple timeseries (i.e. trajectory) the number of timeseries must be known by type, so s must be a Dataset.

If the trajectory is for example $(x, y)$ and τ is integer, then the $n$-th entry of the embedded space is

$(x(n), y(n), x(n+\tau), y(n+\tau), \dots, x(n+γ\tau), y(n+γ\tau))$

If τ is an AbstractMatrix{Int}, so that size(τ) == (γ, B), then we have

$(x(n), y(n), x(n+\tau[1, 1]), y(n+\tau[1, 2]), \dots, x(n+\tau[γ, 1]), y(n+\tau[γ, 2]))$

Notice - The dimension of the returned dataset is (γ+1)*B!

References

 : F. Takens, Detecting Strange Attractors in Turbulence — Dynamical Systems and Turbulence, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 366, Springer (1981)

 : T. Sauer et al., J. Stat. Phys. 65, pp 579 (1991)

 : K. Judd & A. Mees, Physica D 120, pp 273 (1998)

DelayEmbeddings.embedFunction
embed(s, D, τ)

Perform a delay coordinates embedding on signal s with embedding dimension D and delay time τ. The result is returned as a Dataset, which is a vector of static vectors.

See reconstruct for an advanced version that supports multiple delay times and can reconstruct multiple timeseries efficiently.

Here are some examples of reconstructing a 3D continuous chaotic system:

using DynamicalSystems, PyPlot

ds = Systems.gissinger(ones(3))
data = trajectory(ds, 1000.0, dt = 0.05)

xyz = columns(data)

figure(figsize = (12,10))
k = 1
for i in 1:3
for τ in [5, 30, 100]
R = reconstruct(xyz[i], 1, τ)
ax = subplot(3,3,k)
plot(R[:, 1], R[:, 2], color = "C$(k-1)", lw = 0.8) title("var =$i, τ = $τ") global k+=1 end end tight_layout() suptitle("2D reconstructed space") subplots_adjust(top=0.9) τ and dt Keep in mind that whether a value of τ is "reasonable" for continuous systems depends on dt. In the above example the value τ=30 is good, only for the case of using dt = 0.05. For shorter/longer dt one has to adjust properly τ so that their product τ*dt is the same. You can also reconstruct multidimensional timeseries. For this to be possible, the number of timeseries must be known by Type: using StaticArrays: Size a = rand(1000, 3) # my trajectory A = Size(1000, 3)(a) # create array with the size as Type information R = reconstruct(A, 2, 2) #aaaall good 9-dimensional Dataset{Float64} with 996 points 0.315785 0.624665 0.64316 … 0.566011 0.263295 0.614792 0.609112 0.487551 0.285509 0.657766 0.453361 0.15749 0.415614 0.774099 0.0425551 0.420809 0.811994 0.375909 0.303753 0.435943 0.960122 0.689902 0.511303 0.0397719 0.566011 0.263295 0.614792 0.146744 0.678982 0.705166 0.657766 0.453361 0.15749 … 0.891437 0.664544 0.108511 0.420809 0.811994 0.375909 0.754021 0.641237 0.963061 0.689902 0.511303 0.0397719 0.0895821 0.240457 0.545301 0.146744 0.678982 0.705166 0.0168515 0.569302 0.467861 0.891437 0.664544 0.108511 0.467228 0.343429 0.0394357 ⋮ ⋱ 0.621321 0.439952 0.473898 0.662523 0.88944 0.0435264 0.551652 0.709024 0.998179 0.47478 0.0699994 0.092051 0.517067 0.416638 0.115252 0.187647 0.529061 0.591226 0.0879825 0.00992671 0.842923 0.890515 0.124723 0.615152 0.662523 0.88944 0.0435264 … 0.74956 0.770888 0.789451 0.47478 0.0699994 0.092051 0.545455 0.535903 0.646436 0.187647 0.529061 0.591226 0.505994 0.741273 0.560391 0.890515 0.124723 0.615152 0.640255 0.345553 0.963064 0.74956 0.770888 0.789451 0.618149 0.937721 0.149598 ds = Systems.towel(); tr = trajectory(ds, 10000) R = reconstruct(tr, 2, 2) # Dataset size is also known by Type! 9-dimensional Dataset{Float64} with 9997 points 0.085 -0.121 0.075 … 0.837347 0.0372633 0.555269 0.285813 -0.0675286 0.238038 0.51969 0.0616256 0.940906 0.76827 -0.038933 0.672094 0.966676 -0.00171595 0.2225 0.681871 0.0508933 0.825263 0.112748 0.0674955 0.653573 0.837347 0.0372633 0.555269 0.386547 -0.0886542 0.869349 0.51969 0.0616256 0.940906 … 0.910741 -0.0316828 0.411607 0.966676 -0.00171595 0.2225 0.306095 0.0689305 0.909129 0.112748 0.0674955 0.653573 0.824263 -0.056185 0.326064 0.386547 -0.0886542 0.869349 0.545332 0.0508239 0.819404 0.910741 -0.0316828 0.411607 0.954994 0.00453815 0.569534 ⋮ ⋱ 0.914702 -0.0315439 0.294266 0.90246 0.0242141 0.539502 0.289932 0.0641239 0.778698 0.335976 0.0735803 0.943945 0.793854 -0.0552801 0.664223 0.86657 -0.0497658 0.214728 0.62671 0.0557527 0.832001 0.430816 0.0535742 0.62743 0.90246 0.0242141 0.539502 … 0.936955 -0.0200112 0.894333 0.335976 0.0735803 0.943945 0.237481 0.0983265 0.353212 0.86657 -0.0497658 0.214728 0.681538 -0.0476555 0.883219 0.430816 0.0535742 0.62743 0.836353 0.0363264 0.380351 0.936955 -0.0200112 0.894333 0.515471 0.0534613 0.898152 ## Embedding Functors The high level functions embed, reconstruct utilize a low-level interface for creating embedded vectors on-the-fly. The high level interface simply loops over the low level interface. The low level interface is composed of the following two structures: DelayEmbeddings.DelayEmbeddingType DelayEmbedding(γ, τ) → embedding Return a delay coordinates embedding structure to be used as a functor, given a timeseries and some index. Calling embedding(s, n) will create the n-th delay vector of the embedded space, which has γ temporal neighbors with delay(s) τ. See reconstruct for more. Be very careful when choosing n, because @inbounds is used internally. Use τrange! DelayEmbeddings.MTDelayEmbeddingType MTDelayEmbedding(γ, τ, B) -> embedding Return a delay coordinates embedding structure to be used as a functor, that embeds multiple timeseries (B in total) given in the form of a Dataset. Calling embedding(s, n) where s is a Dataset will create the n-th delay vector of the embedded space, which has γ temporal neighbors with delay(s) τ. See reconstruct for more. Be very careful when choosing n, because @inbounds is used internally. Use τrange! DelayEmbeddings.τrangeFunction τrange(s, de::AbstractEmbedding) Return the range r of valid indices n to create delay vectors out of s using de. ## Generalized Embeddings DelayEmbeddings.genembedFunction genembed(s, τs, js = ones(...)) → dataset Create a generalized embedding of s which can be a timeseries or arbitrary Dataset, and return the result as a new dataset. The generalized embedding works as follows: • τs denotes what delay times will be used for each of the entries of the delay vector. It is recommended that τs = 0. τs is allowed to have negative entries as well. • js denotes which of the timeseries contained in s will be used for the entries of the delay vector. js can contain duplicate indices. τs, js are tuples (or vectors) of length D, which also coincides with the embedding dimension. For example, imagine input trajectory$s = [x, y, z]$where$x, y, z$are timeseries (the columns of the Dataset). If js = (1, 3, 2) and τs = (0, 2, -7) the created delay vector at each step$n\$ will be

$(x(n), z(n+2), y(n-7))$

js can be skipped, defaulting to index 1 (first timeseries) for all delay entries.

See also reconstruct. Internally uses GeneralizedEmbedding.

DelayEmbeddings.GeneralizedEmbeddingType
GeneralizedEmbedding(τs [, js]) -> embedding

Return a delay coordinates embedding structure to be used as a functor. Given a timeseries or trajectory (i.e. Dataset) s and calling

embedding(s, n)

will create the delay vector of the n-th point of s in the embedded space using generalized embedding (see genembed).

js is ignored for timeseries input s (since all entries of js must be 1 in this case) and in addition js defaults to (1, ..., 1) for all τ.

Be very careful when choosing n, because @inbounds is used internally. Use τrange!